Integrated Pest Management is the process of continually scouting for lawn and landscape related pests and injury. Pests can be defined as a weed, disease, rodent or insect that can cause injury. When managing the health of your lawn and landscape it is very important to understand the goals of Integrated Pest Management. The two primary goals of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is to protect the environment and provide economical pest control up to the economic and aesthetic thresholds that you the property owner specifies. It is very important to be able to identify what exactly a pest is, if the pest is susceptible (or non-susceptible) to control and if a pest is injurious to the desirable managed plant or not. There are four primary control measures that are routinely used in IPM; Cultural, Mechanical, Biological and Chemical. Cultural control involves growing the desired plant to be healthy through proper fertility, planting, plant selection (less susceptible plants), mulching and mowing. Mechanical control is physically eliminating a pest by cultivating, pruning, hoeing and weed pulling, hand picking or burning and burying. Biological control utilizes living organisms such as predators (lady beetles, spiders, insect-feeding birds), parasites (parasitic wasps, tachinid flies, etc.) and diseases (B.t. bacteria, Beauvaria fungus). Lastly chemical control features the use of pesticides that are primarily quick, effective and short-term. It is highly recommended to consider non-chemical methods first. When applying pesticides you will need to consider any/all environmental impacts, proper timing and location of application. Resistance can be experienced from continual use of same mode-of-action pesticide. Please contact Pacocha Landscaping Services, Inc. for professional lawn related care in the greater Chicago and surrounding northwest suburban area. Thank you for taking the time to read our blog and we look forward to being of service to you in the very near future!
The winter’s in Chicago and it’s surrounding suburbs have become very unpredictable to say the least. Even though meteorologists do their best to provide “forecasts” of anticipated winter weather, we just never know for sure. As property owners we must prepare well in advance for winters worst to ensure our residential, commercial or industrial properties are kept clear of snow and ice. Even though every property is different and service expectations vary, here are several common ways to purchase snow and ice management services .
- Unlimited Seasonal Contract: Any/all snow plowing, shoveling, ice melt applications, etc. will be performed for a fixed non-fluctuating seasonal fee. Normally invoiced in full at beginning of season or monthly (November – March).
- Limited Seasonal Contract: Limited number of snow plowing, shoveling and/or ice melt applications will be performed before incurring an additional predetermined fee (per service, per accumulated inch, per hour, etc.). Normally if service exceeds specified limited contract quantities (number of service visits, applications, snow accumulation, etc.), client will be invoiced for additional predetermined fees at the end of a calendar month, season, etc..
- Per Inch: Snow plowing and/or shoveling services are performed and depending on actual snow accumulation at time of service (determined on-site or by third party meteorologist), client is invoiced for each individual snow clearing visit at the predetermined contracted rate (i.e. 1″-3.9″ = $10.00, 4.0-7.9″ = $15.00, 8.0-11.9″= $25.00, etc.)
- Per Application: Ice melt applications are made before/during/after winter precipitation has occurred. Client is invoiced for each individual ice melt application property visit made. Depending on site conditions, budget, temperatures, etc. multiple ice melt materials are commonly used (sodium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, etc.)
- Per Event: Any/all snow plowing, shoveling, ice melt applications, etc. are performed and invoiced at the end of a snow event. Usually each “event” is defined as continuous snow fall beyond 2″ and within a 24 hour period)
- Time & Materials: Any/all snow plowing, shoveling, ice melt applications, etc. are performed and invoiced according to predetermined hourly and/or material rates.
- As Needed Only: Any/all snow plowing, shoveling, ice melt applications, etc. are requested by the client normally after winter precipitation has occurred. Pricing for needed services are normally provided just before work begins on-site. In my opinion, this is the most unpredictable and most expensive way to purchase snow and ice management services.
- Any combination of the above
If you maintain a lawn that happens to benefit from full sun exposure (not shaded) and has become weakened from heat and drought stress you need to be aware of sod webworm and the damage it can cause. This small sod webworm caterpillar (5/8″-1″ in length) can chew off leaves and stems of your cool-season grasses including Kentucky bluegrass, most fescues, perennial ryegrass and bentgrass. It will cause general lawn thinning, followed by small patches of brown and finally leaving behind closely cut/cropped areas. A lawn that is healthy and well irrigated will often tolerate and recover from sod webworm scalping. Weak or drought stressed lawns that have been clipped short by sod webworm may be killed via sun exposure to the crowns of the plant. Adult sod webworm moths (lawn moths) are small whitish, dull gray or tan colored moths that hover over turfgrass at dusk. As these small sod webworm moths flutter across the lawn females drop eggs during flight that settle in the upper thatch layer of your lawn. As many as 500 eggs are laid during a life span of usually less than 14 days. Depending on temperatures, eggs hatch in 4 to 20 days and the larvae develop through usually 6 to 8 larval stages in 4 to 7 weeks. The larvae are beige, gray, brown or a greenish color (depending upon species) with a brownish head. The older larvae chew down foliage around their burrows mainly at night. Most sod webworm have two generations per year. Sod webworm are fairly easy to control on a curative, as-needed basis. Insecticide controls are directed against the feeding larvae, not the moths. A healthy, vigorous turf, balanced fertility and adequate irrigation during dry periods will enhance your lawn’s tolerance to sod webworm feeding. As always, be sure to contact a local lawn professional to help identify sod webworm, evaluate treatment options and analyze if lawn repairs will be needed.
If you ever came in contact with poison ivy, poison oak or poison sumac you know exactly the type of painful skin irritation one can experience. It begins with severe itching of the skin. Next the skin becomes inflamed and blistering occurs. In extreme cases oozing sores develop. Normally poison ivy rash can last anywhere from 1-3 weeks. With awareness and the ability to properly identify these noxious plants you can avoid direct contact and thereby prevent the inevitable skin rash. Poison ivy, oak and sumac are among the plants that produce a resin called urushiol which is the cause of the annoying allergic rash. Direct plant contact is needed to release the urushiol oil. Be sure to stay away from forest fires, direct burning, or anything else that can cause the oil to become airborne such as a lawnmower, trimmer, etc. Urushiol oil can stay active on any surface, including dead plants, for up to 5 years. Poison ivy is not contagious and will not spread if rashes are touched or rubbed. However, since urushiol is sticky and resin-like it can be spread to other parts of your body or other people if left on your hands, clothing, gear, etc. Poison ivy and oak have 3 leaves per cluster and poison sumac has 7-13 leaves on a branch. Since poison ivy and it’s rash causing relatives commonly grow within other vegetation, it is very difficult to notice.
Often times it is only shortly after the rash has started on your skin that you realize recent contact was made. Since poison ivy is a very persistent plant, it is difficult to completely eradicate. Be sure to protect your skin with appropriate gloves, long sleeve shirt, pants, etc. when manually removing poison ivy, oak or sumac. One proven way to eliminate poison ivy is to apply a non-selective herbicide (Glyphosate) per labeled application rate to completely kill this unwanted plant. As always, be sure to contact a professional to assist in plant identification and removal of poison ivy, oak or sumac by manual or chemical means.
You need to know the difference between a non-selective and a selective herbicide before you perform or authorize any herbicide application on your property.
A non-selective herbicide kills all actively growing vegetation by contact or by a systemic mode of action (chemical transported throughout plant). As an example Round-Up (Glyphosate) is commonly used to kill all existing unwanted vegetation growing in a poorly maintained landscaped area before planting or installing desirable seed or mature plants shortly after. Residual weed control (pre-emergent herbicide, soil sterilants, etc.) should be considered when choosing the correct non-selective herbicide needed for a particular site specific vegetation control task at hand.
A selective herbicide kills only certain target plants (as specified on product label) and leaves behind all other plants virtually unscathed (dosage and timing of application dependent). Most selective herbicides used on turf (in particular) are systemic in nature (chemical transported throughout plant).
A decision will need to be made if only a select few unwanted broadleaf weeds, grasses, vines, etc. need to be eliminated or if everything growing in a particular target area will need to be controlled.
As always, please consult an industry professional for proper target plant identification and best available control options (organic, synthetic, contact, systemic, dosage, mechanical, cultural, etc.) before any/all pesticide applications are performed.
Quackgrass is a perennial grassy weed that is very difficult to eradicate from a lawn. This persistent grassy weed can take over your lawn or invade open soil spaces rather quickly if left alone. Quackgrass grows from seed and underground rhizomes (roots) that lie dormant overwinter but quickly revive each and every spring. In the spring time (in particular) this problem weed grass usually grows faster and taller than other surrounding grass plants. The reason this weed is so difficult to control is due to its resistance to selective herbicides that are routinely used in seasonal lawn care programs. Even though we can quickly eliminate other unwanted grassy and grass-like weeds in lawns like crabgrass, barnyardgrass, foxtail, nutsedge, etc….. just not quackgrass – It lives on! The best way to eliminate quackgrass is by applying a non-selective liquid herbicide like Round-Up (glyphosate) directly to the unwanted weed grass when it is actively growing (spring or fall). Please keep in mind that this non-selective herbicide needed to eliminate quackgrass will also kill any/all desirable grass, plants, etc. that are allowed to come in contact with the herbicide. It is a good idea to choose the right applicator (small paint brush, hand sprayer, back pack sprayer, etc.) that you can easily control to lessen the amount of excess turf damage. If the quackgrass outbreak is very small in overall size than a paint brush (very tedious) or small hand sprayer (faster but expect grass damage as well) will do the trick. However, if quackgrass has spread across your entire lawn than a larger back pack or tank sprayer should be utilized to make the application (please consult a professional for best results). As you can imagine a lawn replacement/repair plan must be in place before making the decision to apply Round-Up to your quackgrass plagued lawn. After waiting generally 14 days or so (post round-up application) you can repair the dead previously treated lawn areas by seed or sod to complete.